Date

You may of noticed when browsing my blog or web site that your connection is set over SSL. This is done help reach the goal of HTTPS/SSL everywhere.

I have also enabled HSTS(HTTP Strict Transport Security) in an effort to avoid man in the middle SSL attacks With HSTS a header is sent via my web server to your browser called "Strict-Transport-Security", when your browser receives this header it will not permit any connections to be sent to my web server unencrypted. Even if you forget the "HTTPS" part I have set a redirect on my server to force you back over SSL/HTTPS.

So how hard was this all to do? Not hard at all! Lets take a look.

Firstly your going to need a SSL certificate. I use Namecheap for this. They use Comodo to issue the certificate. You can use any SSL issuer. If you have only one site, take a look at startSSL by StarCom they over free basic SSL certificates.

Next up configure nginx to use the SSL certificate.

For the blog your reading I use the following settings (in a server{} block) :

  listen                    [::]:443;
  listen                    443;
  server_name               blog.horan.hk;
  ssl                       on;
  ssl_certificate           /etc/nginx/ssl/blog.horan.hk/bundle.blog.horan.hk.crt;
  ssl_certificate_key       /etc/nginx/ssl/blog.horan.hk/blog.horan.hk.key;
  ssl_protocols             TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
  ssl_ciphers               'AES128+EECDH:AES128+EDH:!aNULL';
  ssl_session_cache         shared:SSL:10m;
  ssl_stapling              on;
  ssl_stapling_verify       on;
  ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
  ssl_dhparam               /etc/nginx/ssl/dhparam.pem;
  add_header                Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubdomains" always;

This sets up a few things.

  • Sets a list of allowed protocols and ciphers, after all we don't want things like SSL v3 enabled!
  • Enable SSL stapling to help reduce overheads
  • Sets location for SSL certificate, private key and DH parameters file.

Most import however for HSTS is this the last line "add_header"

  • This line adds the header "Strict-Transport-Security" with a max age of one year, include all subdomains and always set the STS header.

Next we want to ensure all requests are over HTTPS so I set up a redirect for HTTP traffic like this :

server {
  listen                    [::]:80;
  listen                    80;
  server_name               blog.horan.hk;
  return                    301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
}

This server{} block goes in the same file as the above server{} block.

Lastly you want to check that HSTS header is sent and understood by the client. For this I use FireFox's web dev tools inside the web browser. Looking at the image below you can see my client receives the HSTS headers. HSTS HTTP headers


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